A.F. Mahmoud, M.D., Ph.D ., is President of Merck
Vaccines at Merck & Co., Inc. He formerly served Case
Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland
as Chairman of Medicine and Physician-in-Chief from 1987
to 1998. Born in Cairo, Egypt, Dr. Mahmoud received his M.D.
degree from the University of Cairo. He completed training
at the teaching hospitals of the University of Cairo and
joined the Faculty at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt.
Dr. Mahmoud was selected a WHO fellow to study for the Ph.D.
degree at the University of London, School of Hygiene and
Tropical Medicine which he was awarded in 1971. Dr. Mahmoud
conducted investigations on the biology and function of eosinophils.
He prepared the first specific anti-eosinophil serum, which
was used to define the role of these cells in host resistance
to helminthic infections. Dr. Mahmoud also established clinical
and laboratory investigations in Kenya, Egypt and The Philippines
to examine the determinants of infection and disease in schistosomiasis
and other infectious agents. This work led to the development
of innovative strategies to control those infections, which
have been adopted by the World Health Organization as selective
population chemotherapy. Dr. Mahmoud turned his attention
to developing a comprehensive set of responses to the problems
associated with Emerging Infections and the need to expand
immunization and the reach of vaccines in the developing
world. Dr. Mahmoud was elected to membership of the American
Society for Clinical Investigation in 1978, the Association
of American Physicians in 1980 and the Institute of Medicine
of the National Academy of Sciences in 1987.